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Thirty Years' War

Description. Lang: en

The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague. Casualties were overwhelmingly and disproportionately inhabitants of the Holy Roman Empire, most of the rest being battle deaths from various foreign armies. The deadly clashes ravaged Europe; 20 percent of the total population of Germany died during the conflict and there were losses up to 50 percent in a corridor between Pomerania and the Black Forest. In terms of proportional German casualties and destruction, it was surpassed only by the period of January to May 1945 during World War II. One of its enduring results was 19th-century Pan-Germanism, when it served as an example of the dangers of a divided Germany and became a key justification for the 1871 creation of the German Empire (although the German Empire excluded the German-speaking parts of the Austro-Hungarian Empire).Initially a war between various Protestant and Catholic states in the fragmented Holy Roman Empire, it gradually developed into a more general conflict involving most of the European great powers. These states employed relatively large mercenary armies, and the war became less about religion and more of a continuation of the France–Habsburg rivalry for European political pre-eminence.
The war was preceded by the election of the new Habsburg Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand II, who tried to impose religious uniformity on his domains, forcing Roman Catholicism on its peoples. The northern Protestant states, angered by the violation of their rights to religious liberty, which had been granted in the Peace of Augsburg, banded together to form the Protestant Union. Ferdinand II was a devout Roman Catholic and much less tolerant than his predecessor, Rudolf II, who ruled from the largely Protestant city of Prague. Ferdinand's policies were considered strongly pro-Catholic and anti-Protestant.
These events caused widespread fears throughout northern and central Europe, and triggered the Protestant Bohemians living in the then relatively loose dominion of Habsburg Austria (and also within the Holy Roman Empire) to revolt against their nominal ruler, Ferdinand II. After the so-called Defenestration of Prague deposed the Emperor's representatives in Prague, the Protestant estates and Catholic Habsburgs started gathering allies for war. The Protestant Bohemians ousted the Habsburgs and elected the Calvinist Frederick V, Elector of the Rhenish Palatinate as the new king of the Kingdom of Bohemia. Frederick took the offer without the support of the Protestant Union. The southern states, mainly Roman Catholic, were angered by this. Led by Bavaria, these states formed the Catholic League to expel Frederick in support of the Emperor. The Empire soon crushed the perceived Protestant rebellion in the Battle of White Mountain, executing leading Bohemian aristocrats shortly after. Protestant rulers across Europe unanimously condemned the Emperor's action.
After the atrocities committed in Bohemia, Saxony finally gave its support to the Protestant Union and decided to fight back. Sweden, at the time a rising military power, soon intervened in 1630 under its king Gustavus Adolphus, transforming what had been simply the Emperor's attempt to curb the Protestant states into a full-scale war in Europe. Habsburg Spain, wishing to finally crush the Dutch rebels in the Netherlands and the Dutch Republic (which was de facto independent since 1581 but de jure still a part of the Holy Roman Empire), intervened under the pretext of helping its dynastic Habsburg ally, Austria. No longer able to tolerate the encirclement of two major Habsburg powers on its borders, Catholic France entered the coalition on the side of the Protestants in order to counter the Habsburgs.
The Thirty Years' War devastated entire regions, resulting in high mortality, especially among the populations of the German and Italian states, the Crown of Bohemia, and the Southern Netherlands. Both mercenaries and soldiers in fighting armies traditionally looted or extorted tribute to get operating funds, which imposed severe hardships on the inhabitants of occupied territories. The war also bankrupted most of the combatant powers.
The Dutch Republic ultimately benefited; it obtained independence from the Holy Roman Empire and also from Spain (which had directly controlled the Dutch lands despite it not being part of the Holy Roman Empire) thus concluding its 80-year revolt against Spain.  It subsequently enjoyed a time of great prosperity and development, known as the Dutch Golden Age, during which it became one of the world's foremost economic, colonial, and naval powers. The Thirty Years' War ended with the Treaty of Osnabrück and the Treaties of Münster, part of the wider Peace of Westphalia. The war altered the previous political order of European powers. The rise of Bourbon France, the curtailing of Habsburg ambition, and the ascendancy of Sweden as a great power created a new balance of power on the continent, with France emerging from the war strengthened and increasingly dominant in the latter part of the 17th century.
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Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years' War

War

  • Desc: The Thirty Years' War was a war fought primarily in Central Europe between 1618 and 1648. One of the most destructive conflicts in human history, it resulted in eight million fatalities not only from military engagements but also from violence, famine, and plague.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thirty_Years'_War
  • Type: Event, Thing
  • Result Score: 19805.12

Mother Courage and Her Children

Play by Bertolt Brecht and Margarete Steffin

Thirty Years War

Song by Trettioåriga Kriget

  • Type: MusicRecording, Thing
  • Result Score: 43.00

Market Forces

Novel by Richard Morgan

  • Desc: Market Forces is a science fiction thriller novel by British writer Richard Morgan. Set in 2049, the story follows Chris Faulkner as he starts his new job as a junior executive at Shorn Associates, working in their Conflict Investment division where the company supports foreign governments in exchange for a percentage of the country's gross domestic product.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Market_Forces
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 12.36
The Netherlands War of Independence (second part)

The Netherlands War of Independence (second part)

War

  • Desc: The Eighty Years' War or Dutch War of Independence was a revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg against Philip II of Spain, the sovereign of the Habsburg Netherlands.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eighty_Years'_War
  • Type: Event, Thing
  • Result Score: 9.37

The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America

Book by George Packer

  • Desc: The Unwinding: An Inner History of the New America is a 2013 non-fiction book by the American journalist George Packer. The book uses biographies of individual Americans as a means of discussing important forces in American history from 1978 to 2012, including the subprime mortgage crisis, the decline of American manufacturing, and the influence of money on politics.
  • URL: http://us.macmillan.com/theunwinding/GeorgePacker
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Unwinding
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 2.46
Heidi

Heidi

Novel by Johanna Spyri

  • Desc: Heidi is a work of children's fiction published in 1881 by Swiss author Johanna Spyri, originally published in two parts as Heidi: Her Years of Wandering and Learning and Heidi: How She Used What She Learned.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heidi
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.80
Steve Waugh

Steve Waugh

Australian cricketer

  • Desc: Stephen Rodger Waugh, AO is a former Australian international cricketer and twin brother of cricketer Mark Waugh. A right-handed batsman, he was also a medium-pace bowler.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Steve_Waugh
  • Type: Person, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.59

The Time Machine

Book by H. G. Wells

  • Desc: The Time Machine is a science fiction novella by H. G. Wells, published in 1895 and written as a frame narrative. The work is generally credited with the popularization of the concept of time travel by using a vehicle or device to travel purposely and selectively forward or backward through time.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Time_Machine
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.37

World War Z

Novel by Max Brooks

  • Desc: World War Z: An Oral History of the Zombie War is a 2006 zombie apocalyptic horror novel written by American author Max Brooks.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_War_Z
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.28
Waratte Iitomo!

Waratte Iitomo!

Japanese TV show

  • Desc: Morita Kazuyoshi Hour: Waratte Iitomo! was a Japanese variety show aired every weekday on Fuji TV. The show was hosted by Tamori and ran from 1982 to 2014. The show was produced in the Studio Alta building in Shinjuku, Tokyo. The show featured a series of regular members who only appeared on a particular day of the week. These regular members were changed periodically.
  • URL: http://www.fujitv.co.jp/iitomo/index.html
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Waratte_Iitomo!
  • Type: TVSeries, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.26
Twelve Years a Slave

Twelve Years a Slave

Novel by Solomon Northup

  • Desc: Twelve Years a Slave is an 1853 memoir and slave narrative by American Solomon Northup as told to and edited by David Wilson. Northup, a black man who was born free in New York state, details his being tricked to go to Washington, D.C., where he was kidnapped and sold into slavery in the Deep South.
  • URL: http://twelveyearsaslave.org/
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Twelve_Years_a_Slave
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.25

Annexation of Goa

Invasion

  • Desc: The Annexation of Goa was the process in which the Republic of India annexed the former Portuguese Indian territories of Goa, Daman and Diu, starting with the armed action carried out by the Indian Armed Forces in December 1961.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Annexation_of_Goa
  • Type: Event, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.24
The Thirty-Nine Steps

The Thirty-Nine Steps

Novel by John Buchan

  • Desc: The Thirty-Nine Steps is an adventure novel by the Scottish author John Buchan. It first appeared as a serial in Blackwood's Magazine in August and September 1915 before being published in book form in October that year by William Blackwood and Sons, Edinburgh.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Thirty-Nine_Steps
  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.23
Prague

Prague

Capital of the Czech Republic

  • Desc: Prague is the capital and largest city in the Czech Republic, the 14th largest city in the European Union and the historical capital of Bohemia.
  • URL: http://www.praha.eu/
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Prague
  • Type: Place, AdministrativeArea, LandmarksOrHistoricalBuildings, City, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.17
Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)

Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659)

Military conflict

  • Desc: The Franco-Spanish War (1635–1659) was a military conflict that was the result of French involvement in the Thirty Years' War. After the German allies of Sweden were forced to seek terms with the Holy Roman Empire, the French first minister, Cardinal Richelieu, declared war on Spain because French territory was surrounded by Habsburg territories.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-Spanish_War_(1635%E2%80%931659)
  • Type: Event, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.17

Cossacks: European Wars

Video game

  • Desc: Cossacks: European Wars is a real-time strategy video game for Microsoft Windows made by the Ukrainian developer GSC Game World. It was released on 24 April 2001. The game has an isometric view and is set in the 17th and 18th centuries of Europe. It features sixteen playable nations each with its own architectural styles, technologies and units. Players must avoid famine and engage in army expansion, building construction and simple resource gathering.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cossacks:_European_Wars
  • Type: VideoGame, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.15
Chris Pratt

Chris Pratt

American actor

  • Desc: Christopher Michael Pratt is an American actor and film producer. He rose to prominence for his television roles, particularly as Andy Dwyer in the NBC sitcom Parks and Recreation, for which he received critical acclaim and was nominated for the Critics' Choice Television Award for Best Supporting Actor in a Comedy Series in 2013.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chris_Pratt
  • Type: Person, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.13
The Seven Deadly Sins

The Seven Deadly Sins

Literary series

Bob Dylan

Bob Dylan

American singer-songwriter

Alexander the Great

Alexander the Great

King

  • Desc: Alexander III of Macedon, commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon and a member of the Argead dynasty. He was born in Pella in 356 BC and succeeded his father Philip II to the throne at the age of 20.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alexander_the_Great
  • Type: Person, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.10

Kingdom

Manga series

  • Desc: Kingdom is a Japanese seinen manga series written and illustrated by Yasuhisa Hara. The manga provides a fictionalized account of the Warring States period primarily through the experiences of the war orphan Xin and his comrades as he fights to become the greatest general under the heavens, and in doing so, unifying China for the first time in 500 years.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kingdom_(manga)
  • Type: Thing
  • Result Score: 0.10
War and Peace

War and Peace

Novel by Leo Tolstoy

  • Desc: War and Peace is a novel by the Russian author Leo Tolstoy, published serially, then in its entirety in 1869. It is regarded as one of Tolstoy's finest literary achievements.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/War_and_Peace
  • Type: Book, Thing, Article
  • Result Score: 0.10
Romeo and Juliet

Romeo and Juliet

Play by William Shakespeare

  • Desc: Romeo and Juliet is a tragedy written by William Shakespeare early in his career about two young star-crossed lovers whose deaths ultimately reconcile their feuding families.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeo_and_Juliet
  • Type: Book, Article, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.09
Wendy Williams

Wendy Williams

American television presenter

Portuguese Restoration War

Portuguese Restoration War

War

  • Desc: The Portuguese Restoration War was the name given by nineteenth-century Romantic historians to the war between Portugal and Spain that began with the Portuguese revolution of 1640 and ended with the Treaty of Lisbon in 1668, bringing a formal end to the Iberian Union.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Portuguese_Restoration_War
  • Type: Event, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.09
Consequences of War

Consequences of War

Painting by Peter Paul Rubens

  • Desc: Consequences of War, also known as Horror of war, was executed between 1638-1639 by Peter Paul Rubens in oil paint on canvas. It was painted for Ferdinando II de' Medici.
  • Wiki: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consequences_of_War
  • Type: Thing, VisualArtwork
  • Result Score: 0.08
Gothenburg

Gothenburg

City in Sweden

Heir to the Empire

Book by Timothy Zahn

  • Type: Book, Thing
  • Result Score: 0.07
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